Ubuntu: Ubuntu description, download, features of Ubuntu
Ubuntu is a Linux distribution that provides an operating system predominantly focused on desktop computers but also provides support for servers.
Based on Debian GNU / Linux, Ubuntu concentrates his goal in the ease of use, freedom in the use restriction, regular releases (every six months) and the ease of installation. Ubuntu is sponsored by Canonical Ltd., a private company founded and funded by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth.
The name of the distribution comes from the Zulu and Xhosa concept of ubuntu, meaning "humanity to others" or "I am because we are." Ubuntu is a movement led by South African Bishop Desmond Tutu, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his struggle against apartheid in South Africa. The South African Mark Shuttleworth, patron of the project, was very familiar with the current. After seeing the similarities between the ideals of the GNU project, Debian and in general with the free software movement, decided to take the opportunity to spread the ideals of Ubuntu. Ubuntu's slogan - "Linux for human beings" (in English "Linux for Human Beings") - a summary of its main goals: to make a Linux operating system more accessible and easy to use.
The latest version 7.04 (Feisty Fawn) was launched on April 19, 2007.
Mark Shuttleworth of Ubuntu Foundation WSIS in Tunis 2005
On 8 July 2004, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical Ltd. announced the company creating Ubuntu. It had an initial funding of $ 10 million (U.S. $). The project was initiated by some project developers Debian, Gnome because they were disappointed with the manner of operation of the project Debian Linux distribution nonprofit world's most popular.
According to its founders, Debian was a project where there were too bureaucratic responsibilities defined and where any interesting drowned in a sea of discussions. Also, Debian does not put emphasis on stabilizing the development of their tryouts, and only provide safety audits its stable version, which was used only by a minority due to little or no effect he had in terms of current Linux technology .
After forming a multidisciplinary team, the programmers decided to seek financial support from Mark Shuttleworth, a South African entrepreneur who sold Thawte to VeriSign, four years after the founding in the garage of his home for 575 million U.S. dollars.
Shuttleworth was sympathetic to the project and decided to become self-sustaining initiative, combining their experience in creating new businesses with the talent and experience of the developers of the Linux platform. Thus was born the company Canonical, which is responsible for sustaining the project by marketing and support services to other companies. While arming the system developers, Shuttleworth took the opportunity to apply a small marketing campaign to generate interest in the distribution without name (in English: the no-name-distro).
After several months of work and a brief testing period, the first version of Ubuntu (Warty Warthog) was launched on October 20, 2004.
Based on the Debian distribution.
Available in four architectures: Intel x86, AMD64, SPARC (the latter only for the server version).
Ubuntu developers are based largely on the work of Debian and GNOME communities.
Stable versions are released every six months and is kept up to date on security until 18 months after its launch.
The nomenclature of the versions is not due primarily to a development order, consists of the digit of the year of issue and the month in which this occurs. Version 4.10 is October 2004, 5.04 April 2005, 5.10 in October 2005, was 6.06 in June 2006, is 6.10 in October 2006 and 7.04 April 2007.
The official desktop environment is Gnome and synchronized with their releases.
To focus on fixing bugs quickly, package conflicts, etc.. was decided to remove certain packages of main component, as they are not popular or simply chose arbitrarily by taste or their support bases to free software. For these reasons KDE was not initially support more of what gave the Debian maintainers in their repositories, reason I joined the community of distributing KDE distro called Kubuntu.
Synchronously to version 6.06 of Ubuntu, first appeared Xubuntu distribution, based on the Xfce desktop environment.
The official web browser is Mozilla Firefox.
The system includes advanced security features and its policy is not activated by default, when latent processes installed. For that reason, there is no default firewall, as there are no services that could threaten the security of the system.
To work / administrative duties in terminal includes a tool called sudo (similar to Mac OS X), with which avoids the use of the root user (administrator).
Improved accessibility and internationalization, so the software is available to as many people as possible. In version 5.04, the UTF-8 character encoding is in default.
Not only is related to Debian for the use thereof deb package format, also has strong associations with that community, contributing directly and immediately any change, and not just announced. This happens at the time of launch. Many Ubuntu developers are also responsible for the packages in the Debian distribution.
All releases of Ubuntu are provided at no cost. Distribution CDs are sent free of charge to anyone who requests the service through ShipIt (version 6.10 was never free to distribute on CD, but version 7.04 does). You can also download the ISO images of the CDs by download or on BitTorrent technology.
Ubuntu does not charge subscription fees for the improvement of the "Enterprise Edition".
System Synaptic package management.
Ubuntu divides all software into four sections, called components, to show differences in licensing and the priority with which the problems are attended to inform users . These components are: main, restricted, universe and multiverse.
By default, it installs a selection of packages that cover the basic needs of most computer users. Ubuntu packages are generally based on the packages in unstable (Sid) of Debian.
1. The main component
The main component contains only the packages that meet the licensing requirements of Ubuntu, and for which no support available from your computer. This is intended to include everything needed for most general purpose Linux systems. Packages in this component are guaranteed technical assistance and appropriate safety improvements.
2. The restricted component
Restricted component in the program supported by the Ubuntu developers because of its importance, but it is not available under any free license to include in main. Here include packages such as the proprietary drivers for some graphics cards, such as the nVIDIA. The level of support is more limited than for main, because the developers may not have access to source code.
3. The universe component
The universe component includes a wide range of the program, which may or may not have a restricted license, but not supported by the Ubuntu team. This allows users to install all the programs in the system by storing them in a separate place of supported packages: main and restricted.
4. The commercial component
As its classification, contains programs.
5. The component multiverse
Finally, there is the component multiverse, containing unsupported packages because they do not qualify for Free Software.
Each Ubuntu release has a codename, as well as a version number based on the year and month of release. For example, version 5.04 was released in April (04) 2005 (5). Each version of Ubuntu is released six months apart from the last release, but the release of version 6.06 was delayed more than six months, because Canonical Ltd. wanted to develop a distribution as possible to provide technical assistance during three years on the desktop and five years on the server.
Canonical provides technical support and security updates for most versions of Ubuntu for 18 months from the launch date . Currently there are three versions of Ubuntu have support: version 6.06 LTS (Long Term Support) version 6.10 and version 7.04.
There are several versions of Ubuntu available which have simultaneous launches Ubuntu. The most significant are:
Kubuntu, which uses KDE instead of GNOME.
Edubuntu, designed for school environments.
Xubuntu, which uses the Xfce desktop environment.
Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Xubuntu are official projects of the Ubuntu Foundation. Kubuntu and Edubuntu are included within ShipIt program.
Mark Shuttleworth has also supported the creation of a distribution derived from Ubuntu to only use software approved by the Free Software Foundation.  So far there has been no official launch of 'Ubuntu-free', due to difficulties in managing software packages. gNewSense, a project similar to the proposed 'Ubuntu-Free', was released on November 2, 2006. However, there is an official version of Ubuntu.